Linux. Its been around since the mid 90s, and has since reached a user-base that spans industries and continents. For those in the know, you realize that Linux is truly everywhere. Its in your phones, in your cars, in your fridges, your Roku devices. But before Linux became the platform to run desktop computers, servers, and embedded systems across the globe, it was (and still is) one of the best, secure, and stress-free operating systems available.
What is Linux?An operating system is software that handles all of the hardware resources associated with your desktop computer or laptop. To put it simply the operating system handles the communication between your software and your hardware. Without the operating system (often called the OS), the software wouldnt work.
The OS is comprised of a number of pieces:
- The Bootloader: The software that handles the boot process of your computer. For most users, this will just be a splash screen that pops up and eventually goes away to boot into the operating system.
- The kernel: This is the one bit of the whole that's truly called Linux. The kernel is the core of the system and handles the CPU, memory, and peripheral devices. The kernel is the lowest degree of the OS.
- Daemons: These are background services (printing, sound, scheduling, etc) that either start up during boot, or after you log into the desktop.
- The Shell: Youve probably heard reference of the Linux command line. This is what, at one time, scared people from Linux the most (assuming they'd to learn a seemingly archaic command line structure to make Linux work). This is no more the case. With modern desktop Linux, there is no have to ever reach the command line.
- Graphical Server: This really is the sub system that displays the images in your computer screen. It truly is generally referred to as the X server or just X.
- Desktop Environment: This really is the bit of the puzzle that the users really interact with. There are many desktop environments to pick from (Unity, GNOME, Cinnamon, Enlightenment, KDE, XFCE, etc). Each desktop environment includes built-in applications (such as for instance file managers, configuration tools, web browsers, games, etc).
- Applications: Desktop environments do not offer the complete array of apps. Just like Windows and Mac, Linux offers thousands upon thousands of high quality software titles that can be readily found and installed. Most modern Linux distributions (more with this in a moment) contain App Store-like tools that centralize and simplify application installation.
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